为什么以太坊1.0失败而比特币却成功了

介绍

以太坊1.0除非有重大缺陷,否则不会进行彻底的重新设计。那么我们是怎么做到这一点的呢?为什么比特币的表现似乎要好得多?两个重要的因素是用户体验和经济。至少,一个产品要想成功,它必须是现有问题的一个令人信服的替代方案,交易费用不能超过实际交易的经济价值。这些因素共同指向比特币的上行轨迹和以太坊1.0的下行轨迹。

用户体验竞争

有一种说法是,一个产品要想用网络效应来取代另一个产品,它的质量需要提高10倍。具体来说,它必须足够好,足以证明痛苦的交易成本是合理的。在这里,我们研究第一个竞争对手,如果这些改进可以被称为10倍更好的体验。

比特币要好10倍

比特币的第一个竞争对手是谁?我想到的是黄金,但比特币早期的通胀非常高,远远超过了实物黄金的开采。就寿命、通货膨胀、权力下放而言,比特币几乎无法为黄金投资者提供什么,至少目前是这样。它还不是一个有竞争力的产品。

相反,比特币的第一个竞争对手是电汇/ ACH转账。在发达国家,很难想象没有银行账户的人,而拥有使用这些工作流程经验的人的基数大约与曾经报税的人数相当。电汇可能需要30美元,而且需要一个工作日,考虑到银行通常不在周末运营,这可能意味着总共需要三天。ACH转账更便宜,但速度慢得多,需要3-5个工作日来处理。

比特币是一个明显的进步,10分钟的区块时间和收费在很长一段时间内都低于1美分。与银行不同,比特币不会在下午5点后或周末关闭。这是一个明显的10倍的进步,以至于多年后,许多人仍然认为比特币是一个消费者支付网络,而不是结算层。

比特币如今被认为是黄金的替代品,而不是电汇,这无关紧要。在其最成型的几年里,通过提供银行转账的明确替代方案为用户提供服务。

结果以太坊的情况10倍差劲

谁是以太坊的第一个竞争对手?许多人认为这是比特币,但它几乎没有更好的装备来提供支付方面的实质性改进。相反,它不是为支付而设计的,而是一个通用平台,最初被称为“世界计算机”。

这台任何人都可以编写自己DAPP的世界计算机通常被称为Web 3.0的引领者,在Web 3.0中,Ethereum可能是安全去中心化网络的支柱。由于当代网络被称为web 2.0,我认为可以说它是以太坊的第一个竞争对手。互联网和以太坊都有一个共同的特点,那就是任何人都可以在其上构建平台。

现代网络是使用客户机-服务器模型构建的,由于水平扩展(类似于分片),所以具有极大的可扩展性。这种扩展能力是它的超级能力:有数十亿的互联网连接用户,数百亿的互联网连接设备,还有更多的空间。潜伏期通常很短,神经学上无法察觉。带宽足以播放流媒体视频,成本基本上是免费的,由广告补贴。

以太坊并不是一个在任何意义上都能提供改进当代网络的平台。它的带宽不足以上传小图像(每个块最多上传13 KB的数据)。每秒处理15次交易的速度,每天只能支持大约100万活跃用户。延迟远远长于2秒的限制,这将使网络上的用户感到沮丧。每次状态更改大约是0.06美元,考虑到交互性是正常网页浏览体验的一部分,这是一个不好的兆头。

不幸的是,以太坊并不是人们所期望的10倍的改进。说的好听点这是10倍糟糕的经历。如果直白地说,情况还要糟糕几个数量级。以太坊选择了一场在这里无法取胜的战争。Web 2.0的强大之处在于可扩展性,而这正是以太坊的弱点。

交易经济学

经济现实是,交易的价值必须至少超过支付的交易费用。没有这一点,我们就不能实际地期望机载用户。没有人有兴趣把钱留在桌面上。单一收费市场的表现与您可能期望的一样,但多个竞争性费用市场可能挤占经济价值低的应用程序。

比特币的单一应用平台一帆风顺

比特币交易的目的是财富转移。虽然比特币有赌博、存储数据等次要用途,但主要功能的经济价值最高。这意味着按照预期使用平台不会受到次要用途的阻碍。

以太坊的多应用平台出现了意想不到的交互

以太坊上的交易旨在为DAPP提供动力。资产交易本来是一个次要的用途,不幸的是不能从以太坊设计出来。那么,当低价值应用程序与高价值应用程序在同一个平台上时,会发生什么情况呢?除非它们都提供了可比较的经济价值,否则低价值的应用程序可能会完全被定价淘汰。想象一下DAPP A收费高于0.06美元的交易的前1%和DAPP B收费低于0.06美元的交易的前99%。

在以太坊上资产交易的价格超过了DAPP

在以太坊的例子中,尽管它的预期用例是用于DAPP,但以太坊最流行的用途仍然是在没有DAPP的帮助下转移资产。具有讽刺意味的是,以太坊肯定被认为是次要用途的东西,现在却设定了一个交易费用基准,让DAPP破产。

与资产转移不同的是,与网络互动并不是高风险的工作流程。如果你试图验证到某个网站或更新您的Facebook状态,但出现了一些中断或错误,你可以再次尝试。不存在灾难性损失的真正风险,因此不需要像资产转移那样的安全、法律制度或保险。这在很大程度上是软件工程不需要许可证就可以工作的原因,这与医学或其他工程领域不同。

Web 3.0应用程序已经被资产转移挤出市场。这是大多数DAPP的命运,每笔交易的经济价值都低于当前0.06美元的中值。

幸存下来的以太坊1.0 DAPP缺乏吸引力

尽管如此,还是有一些种类的DAPP提供了足够的经济价值来生存。最值得注意的是,他们在赌博,去中心化交易链上的代币,预测市场,ICO和抵押贷款。它们共享的是人们愿意为这些工作流支付与基线交易费相同的费用。(它们涉及一次性转移可能的大笔资金,这并非巧合。)然而,问题是这些都是小众应用程序,它们的价值远远超出了范围。

0x是最受欢迎的DEX协议之一,尽管市值为1.6亿美元,但其终生交易费用仅收取了2000美元。token对于协议的工作也不是必需的,最受欢迎的预测市场Augur,押注预测的资金只有4万美元,但市值却高达1.7亿美元。没有一款DAPP的日活跃用户超过1000人,只有几十家的日活跃用户超过100人。这些数字有些不对劲。

结论

那么,为什么比特币表现如此出色,而以太坊似乎总是举步维艰呢?

比特币是电汇/ ACH传输的10倍。比特币只有一个具有较高经济价值的用例,因此收费市场根据用户愿意支付的费用进行调整。

以太坊1.0比当代网络架构差10倍。它是一个不可扩展的系统(单片区块链),与一个可扩展的系统(现代网络)竞争。情况如此糟糕,他们需要一个完整的重组。以太坊上的资产转移(不打算成为主要用例)创建了一个基准交易费用,淹没了所有低经济价值的应用程序(即大多数DAPP)。存活下来的DAPP数量和成功都不如预期的多。

本文来源:区势传媒    责任编辑:Xxr
区势传媒是一家“研究型媒体”,专注于区块链经济和数字货币理论研究,旨在让一部分人先看懂“区势”。更多区块链信息请关注区势传媒www.55coin.com,项目推广、商务合作请联系微信号:qscm55coin

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【区势早报】区块链等技术可综合应用于信息的生产、分发各个环节;深圳莲花山开出全国首张电费区块链发票

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CBOE再次向SEC提出申请以列出VanEck比特币ETF

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德国第二大证券交易所正式推出加密交易APP

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本文来源:区势传媒  责任编辑:Lrb
区势传媒是一家“研究型媒体”,专注于区块链经济和数字货币理论研究,旨在让一部分人先看懂“区势”。更多区块链信息请关注区势传媒www.55coin.com,项目推广、商务合作请联系微信号:qscm55coin。

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Crypto Startups Push Swiss VC Investments to a Record $1.25B

Startups based in Switzerland have attracted a record amount of venture capital in 2018 and companies from the cryptocurrency industry have contributed to the notable increase. Zug, which is home to the country’s Crypto Valley, is among the cantons with the highest growth in investment volume, a new report reveals.  

Also read: Crypto Mining Could Bring Russia $1B in Taxes, Report Suggests

VC Record Driven by ICT Including Crypto Sector

Swiss startups received almost 1.24 billion francs (close to $1.25 billion) of venture capital during 2018, nearly 32 percent more than the previous year. At the same time, the number of financing rounds has also increased by over 31 percent to 230. The figures come from this year’s edition of the Swiss Venture Capital Report released by the news outlet Startupticker.ch and the Swiss Private Equity and Corporate Finance Association (SECA). The study covers venture capital investments of at least 100,000 Swiss francs.

According to the authors, the growth is largely due to the results in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector, including the fintech industry. New funding for young ICT companies has almost doubled, increasing by approximately 124 percent over the previous year. In 2018, 131 Swiss ICT startups conducted 60 percent of all financing rounds. They collected 685 million francs from investors, which is 55 percent of the total invested capital. The fintech industry alone, including the crypto sector, accounts for 15 percent of the raised capital, or almost 188 million francs.

Crypto Startups Push Swiss VC Investments to a Record $1.25B

Furthermore, six of the 10 largest rounds have been held by ICT companies. That includes the top three of SEBA Crypto, Nexthink and Way Ray. The largest amount, 100 million francs, has been raised by the Zug-based SEBA Crypto, which works on a project to combine crypto and traditional banking services. According to the report, Swiss ICT businesses also include some of the world’s most recognizable VCs such as Index Ventures and GV, the venture capital arm of Google’s parent company Alphabet. As a result, ICT has become Switzerland’s largest venture capital sector, replacing biotech and medtech.

Zug Among the Most Attractive Cantons for Investors

The report explores the geographical distribution of venture capital investments. According to its data, Zurich is the pronounced leader among Swiss cantons. 99 startups from different sectors based there raised over 500 million francs. In 2018, more than 40 million of the total amount was invested in Zurich, which is over 242 million more than the previous year.

Zug and Basel-Stadt are two other cantons that recorded significant investment growth. Last year, startups based in Basel-Stadt received close to 73 percent more in funding than in 2017. And Zug, where many of the crypto companies represented in Switzerland have offices or headquarters, saw a 143 percent increase year-over-year. The authors note that fintech businesses generated 60 percent of risk capital in the canton.

Crypto Startups Push Swiss VC Investments to a Record $1.25B

Gold Rush Mood Is Gone, Optimism Remains

A key conclusion in the report is that the Swiss crypto scene is entering a “period of normalization and professionalization.” Switzerland’s efforts to regulate the space have been a major factor in this process. The country has gradually become a leading crypto-friendly jurisdiction in Europe. The government in Bern recently adopted a comprehensive strategy for the development of the crypto sector. The Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority (Finma) has introduced various guidelines for businesses operating with digital assets.

For example, a set of guidelines adopted by Finma concerns enquiries regarding the regulatory framework for Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs). The financial watchdog defined the different types of digital tokens and the legal consequences of their issuance to third parties. That, according to the study, creates transparency and legal certainty that benefits not only startups trying to raise capital through token sales but all other crypto and blockchain companies as well.

Crypto Startups Push Swiss VC Investments to a Record $1.25B

In fact, the number of ICOs in Switzerland and their volume has decreased significantly during the last year, which indicates that the crypto gold rush is over. “However, there is no question of a hangover,” according to Mathias Ruch, board member of the Swiss Blockchain Federation and co-founder of Zug-based investment firm CVVC. The company recently published its own report revealing that the number of businesses operating from the Swiss Crypto Valley has increased to 750, despite the bearish trend that started in 2018. Ruch also thinks that as a crypto destination, Switzerland should welcome the “return of common sense” and says now is the time to build on its technical and regulatory leadership.

Do you think Swiss crypto startups will attract even more venture capital in 2019? Share your expectations in the comments section below.


Images courtesy of Shutterstock, Swiss Venture Capital Report 2019.


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过年回家,你将怎么和亲朋好友解释区块链?

 

每到春节

币圈链圈的Rebecca、David、Amy们

即将返乡

变身为屯子里的翠花、大妮、二狗们

年终奖拿了多少哇?”

“啥前儿结婚啊?”

“实现财务自由了吗?”

……

人生注定逃不开三姑六婆的“终极三问”


不知大家是否已熟记各种返乡指南


不记得也没关系


蜂姐给你支个招


大胆还击“区块链了解一下”


分布式账本、加密货币、DApp

一顿招呼,保证他们离你远远哒


怕就怕亲朋好友比你还了解


数(chuan)字(xiao)币(pan)


此时,你将肩负科普大任


勇敢点


拿出你在各种会议上侃侃而谈的范儿


告诉Ta


真正的区块链不是传销!!!


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CoinList CEO: Quiet Year for Crypto in 2019 Will Lead to Innovation

Cryptocurrency markets in 2019 are “going to be quiet for a little bit” while firms focus on building the crypto space, the CEO of CoinList Andy Bromberg told Yahoo Finance on Jan. 31.

Following record highs at the end of 2017, cryptocurrency markets in 2018 were mostly bearish. Major coins took large losses and at the end of the year, Bitcoin (BTC) was down by 74 percent while both Ethereum (ETH) and Ripple (XRP) fell by 84 percent.

The first month of 2019 has also seen major losses among top cryptocurrencies. At press time. those same coins, BTC, ETH and XRP, are all down 9.5 percent, 22 percent, and 15.5 percent on their monthly charts, respectively. However, in Bromberg’s view, slower markets mean that companies and entrepreneurs will start developing the space with more useful services and products:

[In 2019] it feels like people are focused on building… I think the market is going to be quiet for a little bit, while people focus on actually creating things. It feels like a little bit of a Mesopotamia, ‘cradle of civilization’ moment, where everyone has the ingredients they need, needs to focus in and start to build out those empires, and create what the future is going to look like, and that’s what this year is going to be about.”

Bromberg noted that there was less hype surrounding the cryptocurrency space. Sinking prices and low volatility drove many speculators to leave cryptocurrency in the last quarter of 2018. Some in the space of also welcomed the bust of the initial coin offering (ICO) bubble, as many projects have failed to turn out successful products, or were outright scams.

To date, CoinList has listed five ICOs: Filecoin, Blockstack, Props, Origin and TrustToken, none of which have yet launched a token, according to Yahoo Finance. CoinList picks and vets each project itself, and only sells tokens to accredited investors (individuals with an annual income over $200,000 or net assets over $1 million, excluding their primary residence).

Bromberg’s statements echo those he made earlier this month, when he told the Wall Street Journal that  the next step for crypto was figuring out “how we can turn this technology into products for people to use.” Per Bromberg:

“Building consumer products is really hard. The developer tool kit isn’t there.”

Fidelity Says Its Crypto Trading and Storage Platform Is in ‘Final Testing’

Financial services provider Fidelity, which has some $7.2 trillion in client assets under management, said Thursday that its anticipated crypto trading and custody platform is in its “final testing” phase.

The company noted in a blog post late Thursday that it had on-boarded “a select set of eligible clients” already, while it worked on building Fidelity Digital Asset Services (FDAS). Fidelity first announced it would be launching a digital asset service last October.

At present, the company is working with auditors to polish its existing policies and procedures, as well as “to set new benchmarks for this aspect of cryptographic and blockchain-based finance.”

Without giving a firm timeframe for a formal launch, the post noted that:

“Our initial clients are an important part of our final testing and process refinement periods, which will eventually enable us to provide these services to a broader set of eligible institutions.”

While the update did not explicitly confirm a Bloomberg report that FDAS was planning to launch publicly in March, it is consistent with the company’s earlier statements that the platform would go live in the first quarter of this year.

The storage component is already custodying assets on behalf of its initial customers.

Further supporting optimism about a near-term launch, FDAS put out a call for prospective clients in its post, writing that “over the next several months, we will thoughtfully engage with and stage prospective clients based on their needs, jurisdiction and other factors.”

The company’s trading and custody solutions are at roughly the same stage of development and are expected to launch around the same time. At launch, FDAS will support bitcoin and ethereum with “institutional-grade custody,” alongside other services.

Fidelity image via Ken Wolter / Shutterstock

Wikimedia Now Accepts Bitcoin Cash

Wikimedia Now Accepts Bitcoin Cash

Wikimedia and BitPay have entered into partnership that will see Wikimedia accept Bitcoin Cash donations, as per a January 29, 2019 announcement.

Crypto-Donations

An official BitPay press release has detailed that Wikimedia, the non-profit organization behind Wikipedia, has teamed up with the cryptocurrency Payment professor. As a result of this partnership, Wikimedia will now also begin to accept bitcoin cash donations. Wikimedia already accepts bitcoin, and the enlistment of bitcoin cash comes as a result of it’s easy to use nature.

BitPay’s chief commercial officer, Sonny Singh said:

“Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash are one of the cheapest payment options available so more money goes to charity rather than paying fees. Wikimedia does so much good around the world that it is a privilege to help them raise money,”

Favourability

This new development adds Wikimedia to the growing list of mainstream establishments that accept their payments in form of crypto, for example, The Great Lakes Science Center and Bernie Moreno Companies (BMC).  These help to push the use of cryptocurrencies into the mainstream and normalize it as a form of payment like fiat currency.

The low transaction fees associated with bitcoin and bitcoin cash was clearly a factor in them being chosen as the starting currencies and for a long time now, the crypto industry has been engaged in a bit of a race to the bottom in terms of transaction fees. This has seen up to millions of dollars being transferred at rapid speed, and also for very low transaction costs.

Pro-Crypto History

The team being Wikimedia has been crypto-forward for a while now, with Larry Sanger,  the co-Founder of Wikipedia, setting up a rewards-based platform in 2018 called Everipedia which rewards contributors of the platform with a native cryptocurrency that can be exchanged for others. According to Sanger, the reason behind this was the fact that the platform could no longer survive on volunteer efforts made by contributors and thus, some incentive was needed.

BitPay on their part saw a very successful 2018 with over $1 Billion in transactions, and also saw massive income come from transaction fee charges to customers. With this new partnership with such a prominent establishment so early in the year, they are poised to see an equally successful 2019.

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Crypto Markets Cool Off Following Yesterday’s Surge, Ripple (XRP) Drops Over 2%

Yesterday was a positive day for the crypto markets, with many cryptocurrencies surging to recover some of their recent losses. Despite this, the markets were not able to maintain their upwards momentum, and all major cryptocurrencies have dropped today, with Ripple (XRP) surrendering a portion of its recent gains.

Many analysts believe that the crypto markets could see further gains in the near future, assuming that Bitcoin is able to maintain within the $3,400 region.

Analysts Claim Crypto Markets Could Climb as Bitcoin Ranges Between $3,400 and $3,500

After falling below $3,550 earlier this week, Bitcoin found support at $3,400, which was a surprise to many analysts who expected it to drop down towards its 2018 lows that are set at approximately $3,200.

After touching $3,400, Bitcoin bounced slightly towards its current price levels around $3,450. Although its inability to break back above $3,500 does appear to be negative, many analysts expect that the crypto markets could see further gains in the near future as Bitcoin ranges between $3,400 and $3,500.

Luke Martin, a popular cryptocurrency analyst, spoke about how he sees the markets unfolding in the near-future in a recent tweet, noting that the crypto markets may see some gains as long as Bitcoin can remain stable above $3,430.

“$BTC above 3430 is a good thing for alts as well. As long as price trades above this level or moves higher expecting majors that dumped this weekend to see turn around with mid caps following. Breaking below 3430 again invalidates,” he said.

Today, however, Martin also noted that Bitcoin’s chart currently looks “ugly,” which could lead to a drop below $3,430, which may lead altcoins to break downwards.

“The $BTC chart is ugly, to put it kindly. At least we get a new monthly tomorrow…”

Mayne, another popular cryptocurrency trader on Twitter, shared a similar sentiment to Martin regarding various cryptocurrencies possibly climbing so long as Bitcoin stabilizes.

“$BTC… I like this daily close. I had a bunch of longs from 2 days ago that I closed yesterday foolishly… Only one left open was an $XRPUSD long from $28 cents. Opened a $BTC long on the first H4 close thru $3430, let’s see what happens,” Mayne explained yesterday afternoon.

Crypto Markets Drop, Ripple (XRP) Falls 2%

 The general crypto markets have cooled off today following yesterday’s market surge that sent many cryptocurrencies up 4% or more.

Ripple (XRP) surged over 10% yesterday, and has since dropped slightly.

At the time of writing, Ripple (XRP) is trading down over 2% at its current price of $0.311. Yesterday, XRP surged from $0.29 to highs of $0.33, which proved to be a level of resistance for the cryptocurrency.

Bitcoin Cash, which also saw some decent gains yesterday, has dropped today, and is currently trading down 1.6%.

Ethereum has dropped just over 1% to its current price of $107.4. Ethereum is currently down significantly from its weekly highs of nearly $118.

Featured images from Shutterstock.